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複雜定語從句的漢譯

來源:互聯網  2007-01-10 16:56:47  評論

所謂複雜的定語從句,是指一個句子帶有兩個或兩個以上定語從句的結構。這類定語從句在結構上與先行詞的關系比較複雜,有如下幾種形式:

1.自由式定語從句

自由式定語從句是指一個句子中兩個或兩個以上不同成分帶定語從句的情況。這種從句的先行詞沒有固定模式,在句中充當不同的句子成分,故該結構中的定語從句稱爲自由式定語從句。它們拆開來看,其實就是一個一個簡單的定語從句,因此,其翻譯也和簡單的定語從句相同。如:

Thus the Arab Umayyed dynasty of caliphs, which had moved the capital

from Medine to Damascus in 661, came to be regarded with much justification

as a parasitic clique that had outlived its usefulness once the conquests

were completed.

人們開始理由充分地認爲,阿拉伯伍麥葉裏發王朝是征服戰爭完成後毫無作用的一個寄生集團;伍麥葉王朝曾于661年從麥地那遷都大馬士革。

該句中由which和that 引出兩個定語從句,分別修飾做主語用的the Arab Umayyed dynasty of caliphs

和作賓語用的 a parasitic clique,翻譯時一個被譯成並列句,一個被譯成定語。

2.嵌套式定語從句

嵌套式定語從句是指一個句子中定語從句套定語從句的情況。這種結構中的定語從句其實和自由式定語從句基本相似,拆開來也是一個獨立的定語從句,只不過一個定語從句在另一個定語從句之中而已。因此,其翻譯也與簡單的定語從句相同。這裏也僅舉一例加以說明:

Likewise in the east were the Seljuk Turks who had infiltrated from their

Central asinan homeland into the Islamic Empire where they were employed

as mercenaries by the Baghdad caliphs.

同樣,在東方是塞爾柱突厥人,他們從家鄉中亞進入伊斯蘭教帝國;在那裏被巴格達哈裏發雇爲雇傭軍。

該句中有兩個定語從句,即在由who引出的定語從句中又套了一個由where引出的定語從句。翻譯時,可按翻譯簡單的定語從句的方法。這裏,兩者均被譯成了並列句,分別修飾先行詞the

Seljuk Turks 和 the Islamic Empire。

3.並列式定語從句

並列式定語從句是並列成分中的定語從句的簡稱,指一個句子中兩個或兩個以上並列成分均帶定語從句的情況。筆者刊登在《中國翻譯》(96.1)上的《英語並列成分中定語從句的漢譯》一文曾作過介紹。這裏再補充一點,這類定語從句也可譯成狀語從句,即先把主句譯出,再把定語從句譯成兩個表示並列或轉折關系的狀語從句。

This was a defensive pact, designed to protect Germany against the French,

who aspired to recover the alsace-Lorraine provinces lost in 1871, and

also to protect Austria-hungary against the Russians, with whom they continually

clashed in the Balkans.

這是一個防禦性的盟約,旨在保護德國人免受法國人的攻擊,保護奧匈帝國免受俄國人的攻擊;因爲法國人想收複1871年失去的阿爾薩斯-洛林地區,而俄國人則在巴爾幹半島同奧匈帝國接連不斷地發生沖突。

4.一主二仆式定語從句

一主二仆式定語從句是指一個先行詞帶有兩個或兩個以上定語從句的情況。該結構中的定語從句比較規範,均修飾一個先行詞,在翻譯時,雖然也遵循一般定語從句的翻譯技巧和方法,但還有其獨特的地方。歸納起來,有如下幾種情況:

1)譯成定語 可以把兩個定語從句譯成並列的定語,也可譯成分開的定語修飾先地詞,或分別修飾重複的先行詞。

… and the old ways of earning a living rivalled by new agricultural techniques,

by commerce with hitherto unknown parts of the globe, and by new crafts

with strane machines that saved labor and that ran without the traditional

human or animal power

……古老的謀生之道正受到新的農業技術、新的貿易、新的行業的挑戰;這種新貿易是與世界上一向無人知曉的地區進行的貿易,而種種新行業則是使用一些無需傳統的人力畜力驅動、可節省勞動力的奇特機遇。(並列的定語)

Almost everything which really matters and which the world possessed

at the commencement of the modern age was already known to man at the dawn

of history.

近代史開始時,世界擁有的每一項重大成就,已爲曆史發端期的人們所知曉。(分開的定語)

And it helps to explain why so many inventions that were of Chinese origin

or that had been known to the Greco-Romans, were fully developed and exploited

ony by the Western Europeans.

它有助于說明,爲什麽發源于中國的許多發明和希臘羅馬人所知道的許多發明,只是在西歐人手中才得到全面發展和充分利用。(分開的定語修飾重複的先行詞)

2)譯成並列句 可以把兩個定語從句簡單地譯成一個並列句,也可以把它們譯成兩個分開的並列句,用來表示並列、轉折或先後順序等關系:

Consequently the manor was a self-sufficient vilage that was worked by

serfs who were not free to leave, and who with their labor supported a

hierarchy of lay and clerical lords.

因而,采邑是靠農奴經營的自足自給予的村莊;農奴不能隨便離開,並以其勞動養活教俗封建集團。(一個並列句)

Not Surprisingly, the most complex political structures appeared in the

Sudan, where long distance trade was most highly developed and where Islamic

influence was the strongest.

毫不奇怪,蘇丹出現了最複雜的政治組織,在那裏,長途貿易發展得最快,伊斯蘭教的影響最爲強烈。(兩個並列句)

Our aim is to establish in Ghana a strong and progressive society … where

poverty and illiteracy no longer exist and disease is brought under control;

and where our educational facilities provide all the children of Ghana

with the best possible opportunities for the development of their potentialities.

我們的目的是在加納建立一個強大、進步的社會……在這裏,貧困和文盲不再存在,疾病得到控制;在這裏,我們的教育機構爲加納所有的孩子提供發展他們的潛力的最好機會。(兩個並列句,表示並列關系)

This hope was nurtured by the great victories won by Genghis Khan''s grandson,

Hulagu, who was a Buddhist, and whose wife was a Christian.

成吉思汗的孫子旭烈兀所取得的偉大勝利,助長了這一希望。旭烈兀是個佛教徒,而他的妻子是基督教徒。(兩個並列句,表示轉折關系)

3)其他譯法 這類定語從句除上述兩種正規、固定的翻譯方法外,還有其他幾種比較靈活的譯法。我們可以把翻譯簡單定語從句的方法融會貫通,運用其中,如譯成定語+句子成分,即把一個從句譯成定語,另一個從句譯成句子成分;或譯成並列句(或句子成分)+狀語從句,即把一個從句譯成並列句或句子成分,另一個從句譯成狀語從句等。

所謂複雜的定語從句,是指一個句子帶有兩個或兩個以上定語從句的結構。這類定語從句在結構上與先行詞的關系比較複雜,有如下幾種形式:   1.自由式定語從句   自由式定語從句是指一個句子中兩個或兩個以上不同成分帶定語從句的情況。這種從句的先行詞沒有固定模式,在句中充當不同的句子成分,故該結構中的定語從句稱爲自由式定語從句。它們拆開來看,其實就是一個一個簡單的定語從句,因此,其翻譯也和簡單的定語從句相同。如:   Thus the Arab Umayyed dynasty of caliphs, which had moved the capital from Medine to Damascus in 661, came to be regarded with much justification as a parasitic clique that had outlived its usefulness once the conquests were completed.   人們開始理由充分地認爲,阿拉伯伍麥葉裏發王朝是征服戰爭完成後毫無作用的一個寄生集團;伍麥葉王朝曾于661年從麥地那遷都大馬士革。   該句中由which和that 引出兩個定語從句,分別修飾做主語用的the Arab Umayyed dynasty of caliphs 和作賓語用的 a parasitic clique,翻譯時一個被譯成並列句,一個被譯成定語。   2.嵌套式定語從句   嵌套式定語從句是指一個句子中定語從句套定語從句的情況。這種結構中的定語從句其實和自由式定語從句基本相似,拆開來也是一個獨立的定語從句,只不過一個定語從句在另一個定語從句之中而已。因此,其翻譯也與簡單的定語從句相同。這裏也僅舉一例加以說明:   Likewise in the east were the Seljuk Turks who had infiltrated from their Central asinan homeland into the Islamic Empire where they were employed as mercenaries by the Baghdad caliphs.   同樣,在東方是塞爾柱突厥人,他們從家鄉中亞進入伊斯蘭教帝國;在那裏被巴格達哈裏發雇爲雇傭軍。   該句中有兩個定語從句,即在由who引出的定語從句中又套了一個由where引出的定語從句。翻譯時,可按翻譯簡單的定語從句的方法。這裏,兩者均被譯成了並列句,分別修飾先行詞the Seljuk Turks 和 the Islamic Empire。   3.並列式定語從句   並列式定語從句是並列成分中的定語從句的簡稱,指一個句子中兩個或兩個以上並列成分均帶定語從句的情況。筆者刊登在《中國翻譯》(96.1)上的《英語並列成分中定語從句的漢譯》一文曾作過介紹。這裏再補充一點,這類定語從句也可譯成狀語從句,即先把主句譯出,再把定語從句譯成兩個表示並列或轉折關系的狀語從句。   This was a defensive pact, designed to protect Germany against the French, who aspired to recover the alsace-Lorraine provinces lost in 1871, and also to protect Austria-hungary against the Russians, with whom they continually clashed in the Balkans.   這是一個防禦性的盟約,旨在保護德國人免受法國人的攻擊,保護奧匈帝國免受俄國人的攻擊;因爲法國人想收複1871年失去的阿爾薩斯-洛林地區,而俄國人則在巴爾幹半島同奧匈帝國接連不斷地發生沖突。   4.一主二仆式定語從句   一主二仆式定語從句是指一個先行詞帶有兩個或兩個以上定語從句的情況。該結構中的定語從句比較規範,均修飾一個先行詞,在翻譯時,雖然也遵循一般定語從句的翻譯技巧和方法,但還有其獨特的地方。歸納起來,有如下幾種情況:   1)譯成定語 可以把兩個定語從句譯成並列的定語,也可譯成分開的定語修飾先地詞,或分別修飾重複的先行詞。   … and the old ways of earning a living rivalled by new agricultural techniques, by commerce with hitherto unknown parts of the globe, and by new crafts with strane machines that saved labor and that ran without the traditional human or animal power   ……古老的謀生之道正受到新的農業技術、新的貿易、新的行業的挑戰;這種新貿易是與世界上一向無人知曉的地區進行的貿易,而種種新行業則是使用一些無需傳統的人力畜力驅動、可節省勞動力的奇特機遇。(並列的定語)   Almost everything which really matters and which the world possessed at the commencement of the modern age was already known to man at the dawn of history.   近代史開始時,世界擁有的每一項重大成就,已爲曆史發端期的人們所知曉。(分開的定語)   And it helps to explain why so many inventions that were of Chinese origin or that had been known to the Greco-Romans, were fully developed and exploited ony by the Western Europeans.   它有助于說明,爲什麽發源于中國的許多發明和希臘羅馬人所知道的許多發明,只是在西歐人手中才得到全面發展和充分利用。(分開的定語修飾重複的先行詞)   2)譯成並列句 可以把兩個定語從句簡單地譯成一個並列句,也可以把它們譯成兩個分開的並列句,用來表示並列、轉折或先後順序等關系:   Consequently the manor was a self-sufficient vilage that was worked by serfs who were not free to leave, and who with their labor supported a hierarchy of lay and clerical lords.   因而,采邑是靠農奴經營的自足自給予的村莊;農奴不能隨便離開,並以其勞動養活教俗封建集團。(一個並列句)   Not Surprisingly, the most complex political structures appeared in the Sudan, where long distance trade was most highly developed and where Islamic influence was the strongest.   毫不奇怪,蘇丹出現了最複雜的政治組織,在那裏,長途貿易發展得最快,伊斯蘭教的影響最爲強烈。(兩個並列句)   Our aim is to establish in Ghana a strong and progressive society … where poverty and illiteracy no longer exist and disease is brought under control; and where our educational facilities provide all the children of Ghana with the best possible opportunities for the development of their potentialities.   我們的目的是在加納建立一個強大、進步的社會……在這裏,貧困和文盲不再存在,疾病得到控制;在這裏,我們的教育機構爲加納所有的孩子提供發展他們的潛力的最好機會。(兩個並列句,表示並列關系)   This hope was nurtured by the great victories won by Genghis Khan''s grandson, Hulagu, who was a Buddhist, and whose wife was a Christian.   成吉思汗的孫子旭烈兀所取得的偉大勝利,助長了這一希望。旭烈兀是個佛教徒,而他的妻子是基督教徒。(兩個並列句,表示轉折關系)   3)其他譯法 這類定語從句除上述兩種正規、固定的翻譯方法外,還有其他幾種比較靈活的譯法。我們可以把翻譯簡單定語從句的方法融會貫通,運用其中,如譯成定語+句子成分,即把一個從句譯成定語,另一個從句譯成句子成分;或譯成並列句(或句子成分)+狀語從句,即把一個從句譯成並列句或句子成分,另一個從句譯成狀語從句等。
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